The cunning trickery of Ophrys orchids

ophrys apifera - engaño de orquideas-mimetismo-orquideas que engañan a abejas-orquidea ophrys

Life has devised a multitude of strategies to adapt and survive, such as mimesis. We all quickly think of examples from the animal kingdom, such as syrphids, some caterpillars, various butterflies or spiders that resemble ants. However, plants are not far behind. Orchids of the genus Ophrys sp. are true works of art of nature. … Read more

The SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Part 2: Lights and shadows of vaccines

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In the face of the current situation, which will undoubtedly mark humanity forever, a race against time has been generated to try to overcome it as quickly as possible. Not in vain, in less than a year it has shown us how vulnerable we are, but also our resilience. The most promising weapons with which … Read more

The SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Part 1: The mechanisms of vaccines

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Is the end of the pandemic near? Is SARS-CoV-2, the same one that has shown how fragile the egomaniacal Homo sapiens and his civilization are, giving its last breath? Will the longed-for vaccines end with this science-fiction situation? The vaccines are being presented as the definitive solution to our problems, the definitive weapon that will … Read more

Six curiosities you didn’t know about Venus

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Venus is considered the brother planet of the Earth. However, since their births they have followed different trajectories that have led them to very different destinies. The current atmosphere of Venus is composed of 96.5% carbon dioxide. Toxic clouds of sulfur dioxide travel rapidly through it. But Venus has not always been so unwelcoming. It … Read more

The 5 most important facts about the plague you should know

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“¡How many brave men, how many beautiful women, how many gallant young men whom Galen, Hippocrates, or Aesculapius would have judged to be very healthy, ate breakfast with their relatives, companions, and friends, and in the evening dined with their ancestors in the other world!” – The Decameron, Bocaccio 1. The disease can occur in … Read more

The most dangerous virus in the world

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SARS-CoV-2, the etiological agent of the respiratory disease COVID-19, has turned our civilization upside down. It has spread in the blink of an eye across the globe. But the most terrifying thing is the death toll. Every day, thousands of people continue to swell the numbers. However, this virus is not one of the most … Read more

Boundary layer: a tool to protect against the cold

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Endotherms, like mammals and birds, mainly use two methods to minimize heat loss by convection in cold environments: .Increasing heat production Reducing heat loss by increasing the efficiency of the insulation, but how? By empowering the BOUNDARY LAYER. The boundary layer is a layer of fluid (water or air) adjacent to the surface of an … Read more

Human races are nonexistent. The farce of racism

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Let’s be clear from the beginning: racism is an invention of human stupidity. If we think about it, there is nothing more absurd and simplistic than attributing someone an intellectual or innate inferiority because of their morphology or ethnicity. Racism is a belief based on a single principle: that within the human species, population subsets … Read more

Animal infanticide. Why some animals kill the offspring

Although we may find this behavior barbaric, we must try to avoid its humanization. It consists of the killing of the young offspring by a mature adult of the same species. It is a frequent behavior in the animal kingdom and it can be maternal or paternal, occur within or outside the family and take … Read more

What did Einstein mean by “God does not play dice with the universe”?

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Albert Einstein, the genius par excellence, said many remarkable things throughout his busy life. But one of his best-known and most misunderstood quotes is the following one, which he left written in a letter to his colleague the mathematician Max Born: “Quantum mechanics is certainly imposing. But an inner voice tells me that it is … Read more

5 curiosities you didn’t know about the Apollo 11 mission

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Although today we remember it as an honorable and impressive episode, the truth is that stress and anguish predominated in the Apollo 11 mission. The odds of returning from the Moon safely were really low. Maybe that’s why president Richard Nixon preferred to watch his back by having a memo written entitled In Event of … Read more

Some curiosities about the skin

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The skin is the largest organ of all vertebrates. Its main functions are: Protective (in terrestrial vertebrates it protects from drying out as well). Sensitive or sensory:  perception of pressure, temperature, vibration… Excretory: elimination of waste substances. In some vertebrates it also participates in thermoregulation and water balance through sweating and vasodilatation-vasoconstriction. For example, when it … Read more

All the keys of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), the new invisible enemy

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It has certainly disrupted our way of life. No one expected it. Its arrival has been too abrupt and we are still assimilating it. We often boast about them for being too small and too simple. Maybe, but that does not mean they should be taken lightly. They are capable of causing economic recessions and … Read more

The penis of female hyenas

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This occurs in the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), whose females are more aggressive and dominant than males. They possess a false penis and scrotum (pseudo penis and pseudo scrotum). However, the truth is that they have an enlarged clitoris shaped like a penis actually, which is erectile and used to urinate. And the vaginal lips … Read more

The world’s smallest deer: the pudú

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Pudu mephistophiles or Northern pudú It is the smallest deer (family Cervidae) in the world. It does not exceed 35 cm in height and 70 cm in length, and weighs between 3.3-6 kg. It lives in the high and cold steppes of the Colombian, Ecuadorian and Peruvian Andes. Its trunk is brown, the neck is … Read more